A humanlike or apelike Entity of North America
possessing some of the char act er ist ics of 
Giant Hominids or North American Apes.

Etymology: Coined by Jer ome Clar k as a 
cat chall t erm for humanoids r epor t ed in t he 
midwest ern and east ern Unit ed St at es and 

Variant names: Big hairy monst er (BHM), 
Billiwack monst er (in sout her n Califor nia), 
Booger, Buenafoot (in sout hern California), 
Cannibal Giant, Dwayyo, East ern bigfoot , 
Fluor escent Fr eddie, Goatman, Goonyak (in 
Vermont ), Gr assman (in Ohio), Lake Worth 
Monster, Manbeast , Manimal, Momo, Old 
slipper yskin (in Vermont ), Old yellow t op (in 
Ont ar io), Ole woolly, Or ange eyes (in Ohio), 
Pr ecambr ian Shield man, Taku he 
(Dakot a/Siouan, “what ’s t hat ?”), Wejuk (in 
Vermont ), Wood devil, Wookie, Woolly 
booger , Yeahoh (in Kent ucky).

Physical description: Not as uniform as t he 
Bigfoot of t he Pacific Nor t hwest , t hough always 
cover ed wit h hair and walking on t wo legs 
(hence it s name). It ’s difficult t o gener alize t r ait s 
fr om r epor t s t hat might have mult iple causes, 
but some of t he following feat ur es ar e usually 
pr esent . Height , 4–9 feet , t hough sizes up t o 12 
feet ar e ment ioned. Hair or fur is r eddish-br own 
t o black, oft en descr ibed as 6–8 inches long. 
Oft en dist inct ly lacking in facial feat ur es, but a 
cat like face is occasionally r epor t ed. Red, orange, yellow, or gr een glowing eyes. Flat , br oad 
nose. Point ed ear s. Wer ewolflike fangs. Mane. 
Long ar ms. Hands ar e somet imes clawed. Long 

Behavior: Pr imar ily noct urnal. Usually has an 
awkwar d, bipedal gait but somet imes r uns on all 
four s. Said t o be able t o swim. Occasionally seen 
wit h young. Repor t ed calls ar e moans, grunt s, 
howls, high-pit ched shr ieks. St r ong, put r id odor 
like decaying flesh or r ot t en eggs. These cr ea - 
t ures ar e somet imes ascr ibed such par anormal 
feat ur es as invulner abilit y, t r anspar ency, insubst 
ant ialit y, invisibilit y, and t he abilit y t o disappear 
inst ant aneously. Appear s t o show int er est 
in and have no fear of human dwellings. Dislikes 
car s and dogs, which oft en r eact wit h gr eat 
fr ight . Somet imes associat ed wit h unident ified 
flying object (UFO) sight ings.

Tracks: Anywher e fr om two- t o six-t oed. 
Three-t oed ar e perhaps commonest and have 
been r epor t ed fr om t he Sout h, t he Midwest , 
Pennsylvania, Mar yland, and sout hern Califor - 
nia. Lengt h, up t o 14 inches. St r ide, up t o 5 
feet . Hair samples have been found.

All pr imat es have five t oes. Any Hair y biped 
t hat leaves clear imprint s showing anyt hing less 
t han five t oes const it ut es an ext reme evolut ionar 
y anomaly. Pent adact yly (having five finger s 
or t oes) is a common and pr imit ive feat ur e of 
rept iles and mammals. However , it is not an essent 
ial r equir ement , and many animals have 
modified t he plan: fr ogs only have four digit s, 
cows have t wo, hor ses have dr opped all but one, 
and snakes have got t en rid of legs alt oget her. 
Most bir ds get by walking on only four (t hr ee in 
fr ont and one behind), while t he Ost r ich 
(Struthio camelus) only has two. If t hr ee-t oed, 
humanlike bipeds r eally exist as flesh-and-blood 
creat ures and are not paranormal apparit ions, it 
would be most int er est ing t o find out mor e 
about their foot structure. Perhaps three toes is 
better than five when you’ve chosen a swamp or 
wetland as your habitat.

Habitat: Secluded areas, often forested wetlands 
or mountainous regions.

Distribution: Nearly every U.S. state and 
Canadian province. Most sightings represent 
only transient individuals.

A partial list of places where Hairy bipeds 
have been reported follows:

Alabama—Choccolocco Valley, Town 

Arkansas—Center Ridge, Greene County, 
Jonesboro, Leachville, Poinsett County, St. 
Francis County, South Crossett, Springdale.

California—Antelope Valley, Borrego Sink, 
Lytle Creek, Pearblossom, San Gorgonio 
Mountains, Santa Paula.

Colorado—Green Mountain Falls.

Connecticut—Bristol, Crystal Lake Reservoir, 



Illinois—Big Muddy River, Cairo, Centerville, 
Chittyville, Creve Coeur, East Peoria, Effingham, 
Farmer City, Kickapoo Creek, Murphysboro.

Indiana—Attica, French Lick, Galveston, 
Hoosier National Forest, Knox County, Pike 
County, Richmond, Rising Sun, Roachdale, 
Sharpsville, Winslow.


Kentucky—Albany, Leslie County, Trimble 

Labrador, Canada—Goose Bay.

Louisiana—Cotton Island, Honey Island 


Manitoba, Canada—Gypsumville, Steinbach, 
Whiteshell Provincial Park.

Maryland—Calvert County, Churchville, 
Dickerson, Harford County, Kingsville, Prince 
George’s County, Sykesville.

Massachusetts—Bridgewater, Raynham Center.

Michigan—Byron, Charlotte, Dowagiac 
Swamp, Fenton, Houghton Lake State Forest, 
Lake City, Marshall, Mason, Mio, Monroe, Oscoda 
County, Port Huron, Saginaw, Shiawassee 
River, Sister Lakes, Tuscola County, Yale.

Minnesota—northern part of state.

Mississippi—Meridian, Winona.

Missouri—Louisiana, Pacific, Troy.

Montana—Monarch, Vaughn.

Nebraska—south of Lincoln.

Nevada—Nevada Test Site.

New Hampshire—Hollis, Salisbury.

New Jersey—Great Bear Swamp, High Point, 
Middletown, Vineland.

New York—Burlington County, Ellisburg, 
Morristown, Mount Misery, Richmondtown, 
Sherman, Watertown, Whitehall.

Newfoundland, Canada—Trinity Bay.

North Carolina—Dismal Swamp, Tabor 

Ohio—Alliance, Brookside Park, Carlisle, 
Coshocton County, Defiance, Eaton, Huron, 
Kenmore, Kimbolton, Mansfield, Minerva, 
Monroeville, Muskingum County, Newcomerstown, 
Point Isabel, Rome. 
Oklahoma—Canton, Kiamichi Mountains, 
Mountain Fork River, Nowata, Noxie, Tahlequah, 
Ontario, Canada—Cobalt, Webequie, Weenusk 
Indian Reservation. 
Oregon—Conser Lake, Roseburg. 
Pennsylvania—Allegheny County, Allison, 
Beaver County, Bradford County, Buffalo 
Mills, Chester County, Chestnut Ridge, Derry 
Township, East Pennsboro Township, Edinboro, 
Fayette County, Gray Station, Indiana 
County, Jeannette, Lancaster, Latrobe, Lock 
Haven, Somerset County, Uniontown, Westmoreland 
County, Whitney. 
Saskatchewan, Canada—Grand Rapids. 
South Dakota—Standing Rock Indian Reservation. 
Tennessee—Charlotte, Flintville, Lascassas, 
Knox County, Monteagle Mountain. 
Texas—Bells, Caddo, Denton, Haskell, 
Lamar County, Lake Worth, Newton County, 
Paris, Peerless, Polk County. 
Vermont—Chittenden, Hartland, Rutland 
County, Williamstown. 
Virginia—Colonial Beach, Middletown. 
West Virginia—Cacapon Bridge, Davis, 
Hickory Flats, Marlinton, Parsons. 
Wisconsin—Benton, Cashton, Deltox 
Swamp, Grafton, Granton, Jefferson, Medford. 
Significant sightings: Riley W. Smith saw a 
naked hairy man, about 6 feet tall, while picking 
berries near Winsted, Connecticut, on August 
17, 1895. The incident was the first of about 
twenty that allegedly took place in western Connecticut 
and the Catskill Mountains of New 
York over the next few weeks. Widely and possibly 
erroneously regarded as a hoax by newspaperman 
Louis T. Stone, the original incident 
may have involved a bear. 
An apelike, bipedal creature with a yellow 
head and mane was seen by workers near the Violet 
Mine east of Cobalt, Ontario, in September 
1906. In 1923, two prospectors saw a similar yellow- 
headed, black-haired animal eating blueberries; 
they thought it was a bear until they threw 
a rock at it, prompting it to get up and walk 
away on two legs. Later sightings earned it the 
nickname “Old yellow top.” The last sighting 
was in August 1970 when Aimée Latreille, the 
driver of a bus carrying twenty-seven miners, was 
forced to swerve after he saw an apelike creature 
with a light mane cross the road; the bus nearly 
had a fatal crash down a nearby rock cut. 
In August 1963, Harlan E. Ford and a friend 
encountered a huge humanoid in Honey Island 
Swamp near Slidell, Louisiana. It glared menacingly 
at them and ran away on two legs. 
In May 1964, near Sister Lakes, Michigan, 
Gordon Brown and his brother saw a hairy man 
about 9 feet tall who made a whimpering sound. 
Shortly afterward, three teenagers saw a 7-foot 
creature with a black face running through the 
underbrush in Silver Creek Township. Many 
other witnesses came forth and were named in 
extensive newspaper coverage. 
A green, 10-foot-tall monster with glowing 
red eyes was seen in March 1965 by teenagers in 
the woods south of French Lick, Indiana. They 
called it “Fluorescent Freddie.” 
In 1965, two teenagers were chased from 
their campfire by a 9- to 10-foot hairy creature 
on the north slope of the San Gorgonio Mountains, 
On August 13, 1965, Christine Van Acker 
and her mother were driving near Monroe, 
Michigan, when a hairy, 7-foot giant stepped in 
front of their car. Van Acker hit the brakes, 
stalling the car, and the creature reached 
through the open window and grabbed the top 
of her head. The women’s screams and horn 
honking apparently made it retreat. 
On May 19, 1969, George Kaiser saw a mansized 
creature covered in black fur on his farm 
near Rising Sun, Indiana. It made a strange 
grunting sound, jumped over a ditch, and 
swiftly ran down the road. Later, footprints with 
three small toes and a big toe were found. A 
greenish-white UFO was seen by a neighbor the 
next night. 
Odd, froglike noises woke up teenagers 
Wayne Hall and Dave Chapman early on July 
24, 1972, at the latter’s home near Crystal Lake 
Reservoir in northwestern Connecticut. Looking 
outside, they saw an 8-foot hairy creature. It 
crossed a road and moved around in the shadows 
near a horse barn. After forty-five minutes, 
it crossed the road again and disappeared in the 
woods by the lake. 
On the night of April 22, 1973, William 
Roemermann, Brian Goldojarb, and Richard 
Engels saw a Bigfoot-like creature near the 
Sycamore Flats campground in Big Rock 
Canyon, Los Angeles County, California. It 
chased their truck for about twenty seconds, its 
long arms swinging in front of its chest. On returning, 
they found many huge, three-toed 
In May and June 1973, an apelike creature 
terrorized the area around Sykesville in Carroll 
County, Maryland. Five-toed, 13-inch footprints 
were found, separated by a stride of 6 feet. 
On June 25, 1973, Randy Needham and 
Judy Johnson were parked near a boat ramp on 
the Big Muddy River near Murphysboro, Illinois, 
when they heard a piercing cry that came 
from the nearby woods. They looked up and 
saw the sound came from a huge shape lumbering 
toward them. The creature was about 7 feet 
tall and covered with a matted, whitish hair. 
Others saw and heard the same creature over the 
next two weeks, and it reappeared in the summers 
of 1974, 1975, 1988, and 1989. 
At 4:30 a.m . on September 2, 1973, Chester 
Yothers woke up and saw a Bigfoot-like creature 
only 5 feet away outside his trailer near 
Whitney, Pennsylvania, apparently looking at 
the house next door. He woke his wife and 
called the police, who arrived shortly afterward. 
The monster was gone, but they found wet footprints 
on the concrete and in the flower bed. 
Dennis Smith and Jimmy Slate heard pounding 
and shrieking noises in the woods next to 
Overlook Drive, near Watertown, New York, in 
the early morning of August 10, 1976. As the 
sun was rising, they saw an erect, black hominid 
walking down the road about two city blocks 
away. When Smith yelled, the creature turned 
around and ran in the opposite direction. Later, 
two 15-inch-long tracks, trampled grass, and 
some long hairs were found. 
On May 18, 1977, two thirteen-year-old 
boys were walking their dog near the historic 
Roberts Covered Bridge south of Eaton, Ohio, 
when the dog got frightened and they smelled a 
rotten-meat odor. Turning around, they saw a 
9-foot, apelike creature with dirty brown hair, 
white eyes, and long arms; it chased them toward 
the road. Both boys were terrified for 
weeks after the incident. Two 14-inch, humanlike 
prints were found near Seven Mile Creek on 
a nearby farm. 
Some twenty-eight sightings of Bigfoot-like 
creatures 6–9 feet tall were reported in wooded 
areas around Little Eagle in the Standing Rock 
Reservation in South Dakota from September 
to November 1977. Numerous large footprints 
were found, and high-pitched shrieks were 
heard repeatedly. Cecelia Thunder Shield said 
the being was tall with gray, shining hair and a 
black face. 
In January 1980, an employee of Reynolds 
Electrical and Engineering Company saw a 6- to 
7-foot hairy creature while driving along a highway 
at the northern end of the Nevada Test 
Site. It disappeared in the sagebrush. 
James Guyette saw a huge hairy humanoid 
walking and swinging its arms along an interstate 
highway near Hartland Dam, Vermont, in 
April 1984. It moved down the embankment 
and headed west. 
A woodsman of Gray Station, Pennsylvania, 
was walking at the forest edge at dusk on December 
13, 1986, when something threw a large 
piece of wood at him. He looked up and saw a 
hairy creature, standing 8–9 feet tall with wide 
shoulders and long arms, blocking the path. 
After a moment, it turned, stooped, and ran 
into the woods. 
Gary Lee Hayes was hunting near a tract of the 
Houghton Lake State Forest, Michigan, on November 
25, 1990, when he saw a tall, upright 
creature moving on the crest of a nearby hill. It 
had black hair all over its body and was 7 feet tall. 
The creature walked down to a large beaver dam, 
squatted down, stood up, then went back uphill. 
Robert Toal found huge, human-shaped 
tracks in the snow on his property in Kingsville, 
Maryland, on the night of February 4–5, 1995. 
Field investigators from the Baltimore-area 
Enigma Project arrived a few days later and photographed 
the tracks, which were 20 inches 
long, 11 inches wide, but only 1 inch deep in 
the powdery snow. The tracks had an average 
stride of 4 feet 10 inches in a straight line and 
apparently passed through a 4-foot-high wire 
fence. Since even humans weighing less than 
200 pounds made deeper impressions in the 
snow, the Enigma group thought these were the 
full-body impressions of a much lighter animal, 
possibly a jumping rabbit. 
Early in the morning of March 28, 2000, 
James Hughes was driving his newspaper route 
near Grafton, Wisconsin, when he saw an 8- 
foot hairy humanoid standing by the side of the 
road. The creature was carrying something that 
looked like a dead goat. 
Human tracks 14 inches long and 5 inches 
wide were found in early June 2001 on the 
Weenusk Indian Reservation at the mouth of 
the Winisk River on Hudson Bay, Ontario. The 
stride measured 6 feet. 
Present status: Distinctions between North 
Am erican Ap es, Devil Monkeys, Hairy 
bipeds, and Bigfoo tare nebulous and possibly 
arbitrary. In general, North Am erican Ap es 
are tailless and primarily quadrupedal, and they 
resemble chimpanzees; Devil Monkeys are 
tailed and resemble baboons; Hairy bipeds cover 
a wide range of descriptions, from apes to Wildmen 
and even paranormal Entities; Bigfoo tis 
a robust, tall hominid with a range that seems 
restricted to the Pacific Northwest. 
Possible explanations: 
(1) Many hoaxes, such as pranksters wearing 
masks or suits. The Selbyville, Delaware, 
swamp monster of 1964 was admittedly a 
hoax perpetrated by a man in a monster 
(2) Mentally unstable or homeless humans 
living in the woods. This explanation may 
have been especially true for nineteenthcentury 
(3) Misidentified American black bears 
(Ursus americanus). 
(4) Monkeys or apes escaped from zoos or 
(5) Entities associated with UFOs, 
suggested by Stan Gordon and Don 
(6) Occurrences of Bigfoot outside its 
traditional range in the Pacific Northwest. 
The only comparative analysis of Hairy 
biped data in eastern North America has 
been done by Craig Heinselman, who 
looked at 654 reports from fifteen eastern 
and northeastern states between 1838 and 
2001 and found few differences in height or 
other narrowly selected physical 
characteristics from the Pacific Northwest 
Bigfoo t. He arrived at a tentative 
population estimate of 210–420 adult 
individuals for all fifteen states. 

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